Reálie: Geografia Veľkej Británie

By | 15. January 2017

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Téma Geografia Anglicka a Veľkej Británie sa pravidelne objavuje na ústnej maturite a štátnici z anglického jazyka, preto je potrebné osvojiť si čo možno najviac faktov. V nasledujúcom článku sa nachádzajú kvalitne a prehľadne spracované informácie o geografii Veľkej Británie, významných mestách a národných parkoch na území Spojeného kráľovstva Veľkej Británie a Severného Írska.


There is some confusion about the correct names and differences between England, Great Britain, United Kingdom etc, so let’s take a closer look on how the United Kingdom is formed.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consists of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. First three countries are located on the same island and they form the Great Britain. Northern part of the Ireland is also part of the United Kingdom and together with Great Britain they form United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Republic of Ireland (in orange color on the map) is an independent state.

England + Wales + ScotlandGreat Britain

Great Britain + Northern Ireland

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The capital of the United Kingdom is London, which is also the capital of England. London is a modern, cosmopolitan city and a true metropolis of international importance. More than 7 million people live in London. Other important cities are Edinburgh, Liverpool, York, Machester, Oxford, Cambridge and Stratford-upon-Avon – the birthplace of William Shakespeare.


London is a big city, full of historic landmarks, cathedrals, museums and modern business centers. It serves as an international hub for banks and financial institutions from all over the world. Many global companies have their headquarters in London. In 2012 London hosted Summer Olympic games. Tourists can enjoy a lot of famous places, such as Big Ben, Tower of London, Tower Bridge, St. Paul’s Cathedral, Buckingham Palace and many others. London is also a cultural center of Great Britain with numerous museums and galleries, e.g British Museum, National Gallery, Madame Tussauds wax museum, just to mention a few.


Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland and one of Great Britain’s most visited cities. Historically, the city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine. literature, the sciences and engineering. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is one of the best universities in the world. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood Palace, the churches of St. Giles, Greyfriars and the Canongate, and the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th century. Edinburgh’s Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.


Liverpool is the city in North West England and major metropolitan borough with an estimated population of almost 500,000 (metropolitan area with surrounding areas has almost 2,5 million inhabitants). Liverpool is situated on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary and it used to be an important port. Liverpool’s status as a port city has contributed to its diverse population from a wide range of peoples, cultures, and religions. Liverpool is also a home of the most famous pop group, The Beatles. The popularity of The Beatles and other groups from the Liverpool makes Liverpool a popular tourist destination.

Towns and cities are important, but countryside is important too. Over 75% of the land in Britain is farmland. Britain also has 15 national parks. All these parks have beautiful countryside. Some of the most visited national parks in England are Lake District in the north-west of England with its beautiful hills and lakes, Peak District, Northumberland and South Downs.

National parks in Great Britain cover approximately 10% of the land area.

Seven Sisters cliff in South Downs National Park

Some of the national parks in Great Britain

National ParkCountryFlag
Peak DistrictEngland flag england
Lake DistrictEngland flag england
NorthumberlandEngland flag england
South DownsEngland flag england
SnowdoniaWalesflag wales
Pembrokeshire CoastWalesflag wales
Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National ParkScotlandflag scotland
Each National Park in Great Britain is administered by its own authority, but that authority does not own all of the land within the Park. They are independent bodies funded by central government to:

• Conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage.
• Promote enjoyment of national parks by the public.

Most of England consists of lowland, while many parts of Wales are mountainous, especially in North and Mid Wales. Scotland is located in the north and it consists of two distinct regions known as the Highlands and the Lowlands. The Highland region is very rugged and sparsely populated. The Lowland region is home to the most of the Scotland’s population. Here we can find the large cities, such as Glasgow and Edinburgh.

počasie v Anglicku

United Kingdom has rather mild climate thanks to winds coming from the southwest bringing warm and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean. The climate is similar to weather in most of northern Europe.

Northern Ireland, Wales and western parts of England and Scotland are generally the mildest, wettest and windiest regions of the UK, and temperature ranges here are seldom extreme. Eastern areas are drier, cooler, less windy and also experience the greatest daily and seasonal temperature variations.

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